The Preposition

A preposition is a word used to link a noun or pronoun (its object) to another sentence element by expressing such relationships as direction (to, into, across, toward), location (at, in, on, under, over, beside, among, by, between, through), time (before, after, during, until, since). Prepositions show the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence. In the following sentences, the prepositions are shown in boldfaced type. The words related by the preposition are in italics. Note that the sentences are alike in wording except for the prepositions across, inside, and around. The change in relationship between ran and yard is due to the change of preposition.
A preposition always introduces a phrase. (A phrase is a group of related words used as a single part of speech and not containing a verb and its subject.) A prepositional phrase is a group of words beginning with a preposition and usually ending with a noun or a pronoun.
in the laboratory                     before the class
under the table                                    along the street
The object of a preposition (the word or phrase following it) is always in the objective case. The noun or pronoun that ends the phrase is the object of the preposition that begins the phrase. Prepositional phrases do not stand by themselves. They are parts of a sentence and are used as modifiers, sometimes as adjectives and at other times as adverbs. When the object is a compound noun, both nouns should be in the objective case. For example, the phrase “between you and me”is frequently and incorrectly written as “between you and I.” Me is the objective form of the pronoun, and I is the subjective form.
Many words that function as prepositions also function as adverbs. If the word takes an object and functions as a connective, it is a preposition; if it has no object and functions as a modifier, it is an adverb.
PREPOSITIONS           :The manager sat behind the desk in her office.
ADVERBS                     :The customer lagged behind; then he came in and sat down.

Luis Alberto Viades Valenci. 2002. Teaching Technical English Writing

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The Development of Reading

Development of reading is important to understand the typical stages of development that children pass through in their reading. This knowledge helps you to pitch your planning and interaction at an appropriate level for the children you are teaching. People who have already experienced such development as teachers and parents are in an advantageous position. However, teachers who are inexperienced need to grasp the fundamental aspects of such development. One of the reasons for this is that it heightens their awareness of what to look for when they do have the opportunity to interact with developing readers.

Fortunately there are a number of in-depth case-studies of individual children that can help in acquiring knowledge about children’s development. Studies of individual children do not act as a blueprint for all children: one of the important things that such case studies show us is that children’s experiences vary greatly. However, if we focus on certain key concepts and significant milestones these can be applied to larger groups of children. These milestones are likely to happen at roughly the same age for many children, but there will be significant numbers of children whose development is different.
It is important to make clear that although some experts have indicated ages of development and have associated certain kinds of reading behaviour with those ages, we are aware that learning does not proceed in a simple linear or step-by-step fashion. The fact that a certain concept is reveakd at age 3 does not imply that it does not feature in later ages. For example, the three-year-old who relates their own visit to a fair to Ted Hughes’ picture book Shaggy and Spotty is not so different to the adult who, for example, responds to The Diary of Bridget Jones by recognising insecurities about their own lives. Both instances involve linking personal experience with a text.
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The Definition of Intensive Reading

This article is about Intensive Reading. Intensive study of reading texts can be a means of increasing learners’ knowledge of language features and their control of reading strategies. It can also improve their comprehension skill. It fits into the language focused learning strand of a course. The classic procedure for intensive reading is the grammar-translation approach where the teacher works with the learners, using the first language to explain the meaning of a text, sentence by sentence. Used on suitable texts and following useful principles, this can be a very useful procedure as long as it is only a part of the reading programme and is complemented by other language-focused learning and by extensive reading for language development and extensive reading for fluency development.

                   At its worst, intensive reading focuses on comprehension of a particular text with no thought being given to whether the features studied in this text will be useful when reading other texts. Such intensive reading usually involves translation and thus comprehension of the text. So, one goal of intensive reading may be comprehension of the text. The use of translation makes sure that learners understand, and when the learners do some of the translation themselves, it allows the teacher to check whether they understand.
Intensive reading may also have another goal and that is to determine what language features will get attention in the course. That is, the language features that are focused on in each text become the language syllabus for the course. This has several positive aspects. First, the language features are set in the communicative context of a text. The text can be used to show how the language features contribute to the communicative purpose of the text and this can be good preparation for subsequent writing activities. Second, choosing features in this way is likely to avoid the interference between vocabulary items or grammatical features that  when topic-centred syllabus design is used.
There are also negative aspects to letting texts determine the language features of a course. First, the features given attention to may be an uncontrolled mixture of useful and not very useful items. That is, high frequency and low frequency vocabulary, frequent grammatical items and very infrequent or irregular grammatical items may get equal attention. Second, the topic of the text determines the salience of the items and the teaching gets directed towards this text rather than what will be useful in a range of texts.
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The Importance of Considering Audience in Writing

Today, I would like sharing about the importance of considering audience in writing. Most of us would agree that talking is easier than writing. For one thing, most of us talk more often than we write—usually many times in the course of a single day—and so get more practice.For another,we get more help from people to whom we speak face to face than from those to whom we write. We see by their facial expressions whether or not listeners understand us, need more or less information, or are pleased with our words.Our own facial and body expressions help us communicate as well. Finally, our listening audiences tend to be more tolerant of the way we talk than our reading audiences are of the way we write: nobody sees my spelling or punctuation when I talk, and nobody calls me on the carpet when, in casual conversation, I miss an occasional noun-verb agreement or utter fragment sentences.
However, writing does certain things better than speaking. If you miswrite, you can always rewrite and catch your mistake before someone else notices it. If you need to develop a complex argument, writing affords you the time and space to do so. If you want your words to have the force of law, writing makes a permanent record to be reread and studied in your absence. And if you want to maintain a certain tone or coolness of demeanor, this can be accomplished more easily in writing than in face-toface confrontations.
Perhaps the greatest problem for writers, at least on the conscious level, concerns the audience who will read their writing:What do they already know? What will they be looking for? What are their biases, values, and assumptions? How can I make sure they understand me as I intend for them to? College instructors are the most common audience for college writing; they make the assignments and read and evaluate the results. Instructors make especially difficult audiences because they are experts in their subject and commonly know more about it than you do. Though you may also write for other audiences such as yourself or classmates,your primary college audience remains the instructor who made the assignment. We should examine the nature of the audiences for whom you most commonly write in academic settings.
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Teaching Vocabulary by Using Pictures

Pictures are considered as the most effective media, which provide valuable assistance to students conveying ideas more easily and fully than words. Picture used in the teaching learning process should be show representative object and should be familiar with the student, so the student will be easy to use and understand the picture. By looking the picture, the students are encouraged to express their ideas.
Picture provides an excellent opportunity for the use of vocabulary and it may stimulate the imagination encourage the student's participation in an interactive classroom atmosphere so that they will get better result. Picture often conveys meaning as effectively as words and may enhance memory retention, especially when learner has to think about how to draw the meaning. Picture in one the important media that can be used in the teaching learning process, especially in teaching English. The picture can represent human life such as people, animal, thing and activities. According Wright (1989:2) explain that picture are not just an aspect method but through their representation of place, object and people.
The pictures are important, because it very possible to predict not only from what we hear and read but also from what we see around us and from what we remember as well. Picture used must be interesting for the students and be easy for the students to understand.
Picture used, as media are useful in teaching learning process. According to Hamalik (1986:81), there are six reason of using pictures in teaching learning process as follows:
1. Pictures are concrete. It mean that by picture, the student can explained something which to talking or to discuss in class.
2. Pictures can be to solve the limited time and place
3. Pictures can be to explain something.
4. Pictures are easy to get and cheap.
5. Pictures are easy to use.
6. Pictures can be to solve the leak senses of the human. It means that a small thing that cannot to see by eye, we can see it clearly by photograph.
Based on the idea above, it is clear that pictures have some advantage in the teaching learning process.
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Correlation between Imperative Sentence Mastery and Procedural Text Writing


As the definitions that have been explained in my previous posting, procedural text is a kind of text that functions to tell to do something such as instructions for how to carry out a task or play a game, directions for getting to a place and rules of behavior.  In writing procedural text, there is the generic structure that should be considered by the writers.  They are goals, materials, and steps.  It is not only considering the generic structure of the text but also the grammatical pattern of the text.  It is the use of command.  A command is an imperative statement. An explanation that does not involve a process or procedure can be written in the simple present active tense in the imperative mood. Imperative sentence is a sentence which is in the form of a command.  In procedural text writing the use of action verb is verb-1, e.g. put, mix, take, and etc.  The use of action verb is in command form.  It demands students to master the imperative sentence.
Writing needs content and language controls such a grammar.  Meaning that in writing procedural text should be close to grammar, it is imperative sentence mastery.  Hammond in Bambang demonstrated that an analysis of the generic structure of children’s writing can provide valuable insight into what makes good and poor writing. Therefore, the imperative sentence mastery will affect procedural text writing.



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CBI-Based Instructional Models

Dear readers...
This article is about CBI-Based Instructional Models. What is CBI-Based Instructional Models? Read the explanation below!
The CBI-based instructional models have gained widespread acceptance in the United States. The cognitive academic language learning approach (CALLA; Chamot & O’Malley, 1986) was the first to recognize that it was necessary to put greater focus on English features and strategies in order to help ELLs academically. The specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE) model, developed in the 1990s and used in California, has three main components: making content comprehensible and engaging, developing academic language, and providing strategies students can use for independent learning. The sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2004) was designed for teachers with ELLs in their grade-level classrooms but is now used in several classroom configurations, such as ESL, bilingual, and sheltered models. The SIOP model has eight major parts and includes more than 30 sheltering strategies in order to build students’ language skills while they are learning grade-level content. Teachers using the SIOP model are encouraged to be trained in its implementation, and a number of books are available to guide teachers in its use.
All of these models—CALLA, SDAIE, and SIOP—are sheltered instruction models. They activate the prior knowledge of the learner, provide supports for developing academic skills and language, provide manipulatives for hands-on learning, give generous time to generate output, and include authentic assessment. Sheltered instruction pedagogy is based on the CBI
model.
These instructional models and others that subscribe to CBI use subject-matter content as the basis of instruction, while helping learners develop many cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, it’s also important that CBI programs provide enough time for ELLs to engage in daily oral language that is not on academic topics but develops social skills.
That’s all explanation about CBI-Based Instructional Models. I hope this article being helpful.
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